This blog will be updated monthly to highlight legal knowledge that is beneficial for all of us to know and use when common situations arise in our everyday lives.
Suing local and state entities and their employees have extra requirements beyond that of a regular negligence claim. Additionally, it is important to note that suing the federal government and its employees have different requirements than suing local state entities and their employees, so knowing the type of defendant at fault matters. For local and state entities and their employees, A.R.S. §12-821.01 requires a Notice of Claim to be filed and served on the potentially culpable entity within 180 days of the incident to put the government on notice of the facts and basis of the claim. The notice must also contain a specific amount for which the claim can be settled. Once the Notice of Claim is served, the government has 60 days to accept or deny the Notice of Claim (no response is deemed a denial after 60 days).
Unlike the two-year statute of limitations for most negligence claims, claims against local and state entities also have a one-year statute of limitations for a lawsuit to be filed.There are a few exceptions that toll the 180 day deadline and statute of limitations (e.g. minors, incompetent persons), and there are very specific rules that must be complied with for a Notice of Claim and lawsuit to be valid, so it's important to hire an attorney that knows these requirements well.
*Homeowners insurance does not just protect you in the event that your home and/or personal property are damaged or stolen. It also provides liability coverage and protects you in the event that you are negligent in a non-motor vehicle incident that results in damaging someone else's property or injuring someone else. For example, homeowners insurance protects you in the event that your dog injures another person (exception: some policies exclude certain breeds of dogs). In the event that you are sued for a negligent non-motor vehicle act, your insurer will provide you with a lawyer to defend you.
*Insurance bad faith is a claim available to insureds who believe they are being mistreated by their own insuaranace company. When handling an insurance claim, the insurance company has a legal duty to treat their own insureds' interests' equal to that of its own interests. If the insurance company makes its own interest a priority above that of its insured, the company has committed bad faith. Damages in a bad faith claim can include the financial/economic loss the insured has suffered as a result of the bad faith (including interest if applicable), attorneys' fees, and emotional stress/frustration caused as a result of the bad faith. If the conduct is exceptionally bad, punitive damages may also be available. Examples of bad faith typically include:
*Unreasonable denial of a claim that should be covered.
*Unreasonable delay in the claims handling process.
*Unreasonable evaluation of a covered claim (i.e. making an offer that is well below the fair value of a claim).
*Other actions taken by the insurer that make it clear that it is protecting the the company over that of its insured.
*Arizona has strict dog laws to encourage responsible dog ownership and to protect the public. A.R.S. §11-1020 makes dog owners strictly liable in the event that their unleashed dog injures another person in public. §11-1025 makes dog owners strictly liable in the event that their dog (leashed or unleashed) bites another person (in public or in private). Because these statutes are separate, that also means the injury a person sustains due to an unleashed dog does not necessarily have to be a bite (i.e. unleashed dog causes a cyclist to fall of her bike). "Strictly liable" means that the injured person does not have to prove that the dog owner was negligent (i.e. unreasonable) to establish liability, but only that the event occurred. The only exception to avoiding strict liability during these events is if the dog owner can prove that the injured person provoked the dog. This is why it is important to always leash your dog if you take them out in public, even if you believe that your dog is the friendliest dog in the world; if your dog poses a bite risk, it's important to properly confine the dog and do whatever you need to do to ensure the dog doesn't bite anyone, including vets, pet groomers, and other pet handlers.